Class Year



Antimicrobial Activity, MRSA, genetics, Natural Remedies, staph, bacteriophages, mulit-drug resistance


Staphylococcus (staph) is a genus of bacteria found almost everywhere including in the soil and on the skin of many animal species. Staph species are responsible for a considerable number of diseases ranging from carbuncles, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Treatment of these illnesses is becoming increasingly difficult due to developing resistance. Genes thought to be responsible for the resistance of Staphylococcus species may have originated in the species S. scuiri, possibly an ancestral species, and later transferred to other species. Horizontal transfer of resistance genes is possible due to the close evolutionary relationship of one species of staph to another. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, such as some strains of staph, can be attributed to the increase in use of antibiotics. Recently, resistance to medicines such as vancomycin has manifested. Antibiotic resistance of staph can be attributed to the transfer of the genes mecA, pls, and more by transduction. This creates large problems for the medical community as new treatments against antibiotic resistant strains must be engineered.


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